01. Lengthening Reconstructive Surgery for Congenital Femoral Deformity

Congenital femoral deficiency (CFD) is a spectrum of severity of femoral deficiency and deformity. Deficiency implies a lack of integrity, stability, and mobility of the hip and knee joints. Deformity refers to bone malorientation, bone malrotation, and soft tissue contractures of the hip and knee. Both deficiencies and deformities are present at birth, nonprogressive, and of variable degree.

02. Congenital Leg Deformity: Tibial Hemimelia

The longitudinal tibial reduction defect is a very rare disease with an incidence of 1/1,000,000 per live birth. Many different operative techniques have been tried in the treatment of this disease. Primary amputation has been recommended, especially for the severe forms because the functional results of the reconstructions were often disappointing. In. treatments was for the following reasons: addition, a high rate of secondary amputations has been reported existing anatomical structures for treatment of the tibial reduction deficiencies with new operative approaches.

03. Growth Arrest

A growth arrest is an unexpected premature interruption of the longitudinal and or latitudinal growth of a long bone. Defining the underlying etiology of the growth plate disturbance and the natural history of the problem is important when designing a treatment plan. A growth arrest is most frequently reported as a complication of a physeal fracture. Premature growth arrest is more common in the lower extremities, with post-traumatic arrest more frequent distally. A premature complete physeal arrest will result in only a retardation of bone length with no angular deformity.

04. Leg-Length Discrepancy

Leg–length discrepancy (LLD) is common; 23% of the general population has a LLD of 1 cm or more. The prevalence of LLD requiring a corrective device, such as a lift, is approximately 1 in 1000.

05. Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia

Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia ((CPT) refers to nonunion of a tibial fracture that develops spontaneously or after trivial trauma in a dysplastic bone segment of the tibial diaphysis. The pseudarthrosis usually develops during the first two years of life, however, there are reports of cases in which fractures developed before birth and reports of late-onset pseudarthrosis. The etiological nature of this condition is unclear; however, there is a strong association between CPT and neurofibromatosis Type I (NF-1). CPT develops in about 5.7% of patients with NF-1. On the other hand, 40% of patients with CPT were found to have NF-1. Electron microscopy and histopathological studies showed that the main pathology of CPT is hyperplasia of fibroblasts with the formation of dense fibrous tissue. This invasive fibromatosis is located in the periosteum and between broken bone ends and surrounds the tibia causing compression, osteolysis, and persistence of pseudarthrosis.